The Universe As Seen By Nicholas of Cusa, I
After reading the book 'On Learned Ignorance' (De Docta Ignorantia) in 1980, I concluded that its author was the first modern scientist. The author of this book is Bishop Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464). He was a German of the Roman Church. I suggest that this book be copied out of the Internet. (click) What a great gift this book would be during the Holidays. In time, I expect this book to be found among the scriptures in the home of every nation. The pic is Cusa.
In Bk. II, Ch. Eleven of his book 'On Learned Ignorance,' Cusa says, "Therefore, the earth, which cannot be the center, cannot be devoid of all motion. Indeed, it is even necessary that the earth be moved in such a way that it could be moved infinitely less. Therefore, just as the earth is not the center of the world, so the sphere of the fixed stare is not the circumference ..."
Based on the above words of Cusa, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) were not the first and second to conclude that the fixed stars are in motion. Let's look at some interesting histories.
Cusa studied at Padua; later Galileo taught at Padua; Kepler recognized Cusa's discovery of God's absolute maximum and absolute minimum; and Galileo expressed deep interest in Kepler's work. I thus conclude that Galileo had some access to the thoughts of Cusa in the book "On Learned Ignorance." Further, on p.26 of 'The Crime of Galileo' by Giorgio de Santillana, we find that Galileo accepted the concept of imperceptiblis motus spoken by Cusa. Galileo seems to confirm the existence of indivisibles at Job 26:7. Furthermore, in Ch. 6 of 'Galileo Galilei, his life and his works' by Raymond J. Seeger, Galileo spoke of an infinite number of indivisibles that could form a continuous quanty. In Seeger's book, Galileo says that indivisibles can expand into very large spaces without introducing a finite number of empty spaces (vacuums).
Based on the information above, today's scientists seem to be on the wrong path of thought.