When the USA was founded in 1776, a new political experiment was installed. This new experiment originated in England by John Locke. His work developed a social contr
act theory. His new experiment would change the old ruled/ruler political dualism to the new governed/governing dualism. The new dualism focuses on increasing the freedom of man through laws. To create the new dualism, two social contracts had to be created. The first contract defined ‘the governed’ in the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The second contract defined ‘the governing’ in the Articles of Confederation on July 9, 1776, which was improved with the Constitution in 1787.
Unfortunately, the new dualism is not developing properly in the USA because the function of Declaration of Independence was thought not to have any future purposes after it authorized the Revolutionary War. The author corrects this thought.I. The Declaration of Independence: A Letter to the Editor
Below is a Letter to the Editor of The Journal, Martinsburg, WV on mistakes that the US Government is making at the Supreme Court on ruling, which eliminate the Declaration of Independence from the body of US laws. The letter was published on July 25, 2007.
Supreme Court Ruling a Mistake.
The US Supreme Court ruled that the Declaration of Independence is not a law. This rule is an error.
The USA is a new political experiment and became ‘the governed vs. the governing.’ The old political philosophy was known as ‘the ruled vs. the rulers.’ In his social contract theory, John Locke identified this new experiment as a civil society. His social contract theory is found in his "The Second Treatise of Government" and requires two contracts. The first was identified in the US Declaration of Independence. It is an agreement among the governed States. This contract creates Locke’s ‘society.’ The second was identified in the US Constitution. This is an agreement between the governed and the governing and creates Locke’s ‘government.’
Locke’s ‘society’ and ‘government’ came into existence together and form a whole, which is an indivisible Union. In the new experiment, all US citizens in the ‘society’ share their God-given rights with the ‘government.’ In Section 87 of the Treatise, Locke says, ‘Those who are united into one body and have a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them and punish offenders, are in civil society one with another; ..."
By excluding the first contract from the body of US laws, the Supreme Court destroyed the ‘society.’ Essentially, its error destroyed the new experiment and caused the USA to return to the old political philosophy, ‘the ruled vs. the ruler’ The new rulers are Washington lobbyists and career Washington representatives. Without this error, the USA was founded as "an indivisible nation under God."II. The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution Are Partners in the New Political Experiment
A new political experiment was installed in the USA by the founders in 1776. Politically, this experiment was expected to eliminate all world rulers by developing a civil society and a self- government in the USA. The founders expected this experiment to be installed in all nations throughout the world. To install this experiment in the American colony, the Revolutionary War with England had to be authorized and won. Before the war, the colonists studied the available social contract theories in the Western world and decided to install the social contract theory of England’s John Locke. This social contract theory uses two contracts. One contract created (1) a society with the Declaration of Independence. With the second contract, the new society created (2) a self-government with the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. However, the Declaration of Independence, which authorized the Revolutionary War and defined the new society, was never included in the body of US laws by the Supreme court. This was a drastic judicial error, as this paper will show.
One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to justify the colonists for withdrawing their allegiance from the British Crown and dissolving their connection with England. But, the Declaration had a second purpose. The second purpose was to define the new society, which is part of Locke’s social contract and the new political experiment. The Declaration did function as the authority to initiate the Revolutionary War against England. However, the sentences in the first and second paragraph and final sentence of the Declaration were not part of the Declaration’s authorization of war and the authorities of the future. They defined the new ‘society.’ Clearly, the Declaration should have been included in the body of US laws because it includes mandates that apply to the future of the USA and its new political experiment.
The Declaration was used in future governmental actions. For instance, the Lincoln administration protected the Union by denying States from seceding. The statement ‘all men are created equal,’ in the second paragraph of the Declaration, led to the Civil War after the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision legalized slavery in 1857. But, the US Supreme Court never had the authority to legalize slavery. The Declaration might have been used in different ways by the US government after Lincoln’s assassination. However, the Declaration does give ‘the governed’ and ‘the governing’ other authorities. For instance, US citizens and the US government can authorize unalienable rights, research for new knowledge of God, research to determine Laws of Nature and Laws of Nature’s God, and changes or abolishing the government. Thus, the Declaration is not dead, repealed, or burned in the circle file of the Archive in Washington. Thus, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution are One and are thus endless partners.
Locke’s social contract theory uses two social contracts to form a Lockean civil society. The US civil society began to develop with the Lee Resolution on June 7, 1776. On July 4, 1776. Locke’s ‘society’ came into existence with the document, "A Declaration by The Representatives of the United States of America, In General Congress, Assembled" and after it was prepared, debated, and agreed upon. This document became known as the Declaration of Independence. The second social contract brought Locke’s ‘government’ into existence when the same Representatives prepared the Articles of Confederation on July 9, 1776 and improved it by preparing the Constitution in 1787. As seen, the Declaration is not merely a part of the body of US laws. It is the first of two laws.
The governed, which became the Lockean society, could not be eliminated because ‘what has become the governed’ and ‘what has become the governing’ were united and forms the Union. The Union was necessary because the two Lockean social contracts had to coexist and be unified with a spiritual glue that connects ‘the governed’ and ‘the governing.’ By not including the Declaration in the body of US laws is equivalent to throwing the first social contract into a ‘circle file’ and burning it.
The elimination of the Declaration of Independence from the body of US laws essentially destroyed the new political experiment. Without both Lockean social contracts, the three branches of the US government did not function for the new experiment correctly. Instead, they became three separated powers. Instead of developing these branches into a functionally related governing activity, the Congress became a special interest political activity and the President and the Supreme Court became legislators. Without the Declaration, these branches were unable to respond to man’s increasing knowledge about God and his universe.
Without the Declaration, the US government transformed the USA from a Lockean civil society to a Lockean political society. With a political society, the human rights we receive from God were replaced by political rights. What became politically right (or wrong) caused the rights of ‘the governed’ to become arbitrary rights. With arbitrary rights, the USA was forced to return to the arbitrary rights of England’s parliament. This return caused the Revolutionary War to lose its important history.
Without the Declaration, new and unwanted human behaviors appeared. Examples are atheism, drug use, abortion, and stranger-to-stranger crimes. Many of these new behaviors did not emerge until after WWII. For instance, many new atheists emerged after WWII. They deny God, which divide the USA. Also, they do not believe in religions, the existence of spiritual beings, and the existence of things created out of nothing. Yet, we now know that ‘matter’ is formed from spiritual atoms, not physical atoms. The spiritual atoms are Spirits that come from an infinite God. This new knowledge of mine is beginning to convince more scientists that a godless universe will never be found.
At our founder’s time, God’s existence and God’s non existence were not proven. So, when the founders created the new political experience, they decided to accept God as a reality. Their decision to accept God was a good one because many scientific proofs of God’s existence are appearing in books and on the Internet. Unfortunately, the elimination of the Declaration of Independence from the body of US laws is causing the USA to become inconsistent with man’s new knowledge.III. All US Citizens Must Become Involved in the New Political Experiment
A Lockean civil society cannot be built with a silent society because new knowledge must be developed constantly to make the new political experiment successful. A civil society, for instance, must measure the success of the new experiment. The Constitutional mandates this measurement in the Preamble. There, ‘the governed’ and ‘the governing’ are told ‘to form a more perfect Union.’ This mandate unified ‘the governed’ and ‘the governing’ and thus unifies the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Scientifically, this measuring standard is a perfect thing. Since God is the only perfect thing in the world, the measuring standard of progress on the new experiment is God. So, both ‘the governed’ and ‘the governing’ must work together to measure the progress of the new experiment and to remain their awareness of newly developed knowledge about God. God-related research projects are thus required by ‘the governed’ and ‘the governing’ while maintaining the separation between ‘the governing’ and all religions.
The new experiment made sound gains after WWII and when the educational level of Americans was lifted by the GI Bill of Rights. This educational growth set the stage for the space program, man’s landing on the moon, and the availability of high technologies for all fields of thought and practices. This remarkable success created a level of human freedom never experienced on this planet before. However, without the Declaration, progress in the new experiment would be impeded by youth of the new generation, who deny God and do not accept civil responsibilities. Their lack of responsibility is seen with development of a drug culture in the early 1960s and the high crime rates in 1968. By 1970, an increasing number of atheists would appear in the workplace because discussions of God had been removed from most US educational systems. Without the Declaration and without the teaching of God, many scientists became atheists and would seek knowledge of a godless universe. However, by 2006, they would admit failure.
Knowing about the drug and crime problems of the 1960s, by the 1980s, as a professional staff member of the National Institute of Justice, I was searching for the root causes of crime. This search ended in the early years of the new millennium after I studied the New Testament and Jesus Christ. In this study, I found that Jesus spoke of the root cause of crime as I did in the late 1980s. Deeper studies of Jesus led me to conclude that Jesus was a divine being.
With this agreement on crime and 25 years of research to report, last June I published a book. The title is "The First Scientific Proof of God"and was published by authorhouse.com. I present a scientific proof of God in Part I, Ch 1. This proof can be falsified if particle physicists prove that the Yang-Mills theory is false. This theory in the field of physics says that physical particles are not free. Thus, unless scientists can prove that free physical particles exist, my proof of God’s existence is proven. This book presents new knowledge on God’s intelligent design and a new and modern creation theory. Since I discuss many complex subjects in my book, I also teach the book on a Google blogger website at http://georgeshollenberger.blogspot.com/. I also unify theology and science and unify the great works of Moses, Plato, Jesus Christ, Nicholas of Cusa, Gottfried Leibniz, and Georg Cantor. Currently, I am conducting new research on the dialectics and phenomenology of Spirits by Friedrich Hegel.
The new political experiment is missing out on the development of new knowledge about God. For an example, the15th century theologian, Nicholas of Cusa, and the 18th century philosopher, Friedrich Hegel, have developed a new view of God. This view says that God unifies all opposites. In the founding documents of the USA, one can find such opposites. For instance, the opposites, permanence and change, explains the new experiment clearer. Permanence applies to unchanging society of ‘the governed,’ whereas change applies to the changing amendments of ‘the governing.’ Such opposites tell us that the Declaration and the Constitution are coexisting opposites, ‘the governed’ and ‘the governing.
Coexisting opposites have different meanings because they are different essences. Their meanings are understood correctly using both/and reasoning because they coexist. Independence and dependence form another coexisting pair of opposites. Independence is something that God gives to all created things. With independence, we can perceive and distinguish created things and build knowledge about them. On the other hand, dependence is something that belongs to God. The colonists expressed their dependence on God in the last statement of the Declaration, "And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor."
Declaring independence for any nation is a scientific thought and act. Independence is indeed a sound scientific word because it can reveal many new truths. It is a universal’ that is found in all created things in the universe. Since all created things are formed by spiritual atoms, all spiritual atoms and all things are independent but also depend on God for their independence. The spiritual atoms are Spirits. They are our souls. Spirits combine so they produce a continuous flow of wholes, such as hydrogen, steel, trees, rocks, animals and humans, to the universe. The independence of a Spirit is never lost, even if it is dissolved with other Spirits and form something whole for the universe. Learn this beautiful process of Spirits by watching how clouds live together. With the independence that God gives atoms and wholes, our senses cannot perceive the atoms because they are indivisible. But, with God’s independence, we can perceive the wholes, which are divisible. Our lives depend on the independence we receive from God. Otherwise, we would merely be a part of a huge nonliving mechanical universe.
The independence received from God gives each created whole a particular content. The contents of a thing tell us ‘what is.’ The Declaration of Independence also created a whole with contents. The contents tells us ‘what the US society is.’ The Constitution also created a whole with contents. The contents tell us ‘what the US government is.’
In the mental world of humans, independence means ‘rights.’ So, just as God gives all humans essential contents, God also gives all humans essential rights. These rights are called unalienable rights. We must search for these rights by building knowledge about God. The Declaration tells us that we will find these rights and will build knowledge if we find the Laws of Nature and the Laws of Nature’s God. These words, which are found in the first and second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence, are critical to the success of the new US experiment.
In the second paragraph of the Declaration, the founders tell us, "That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness." These words say that ‘the governed’ is sovereign and is the authority over ‘the governing’ organization. Here are reasons why the Declaration should not have been removed from the body of US laws.IV. The Practice of Atheism is Not Legal in the USA
The Declaration of Independence became an official document of the Congress of the United States of America on July 4, 1776. Thus, the US government could interpret this document after 1776 but could not change or abolish it. Thus, only Representatives of ‘one people’ could change or abolish the Declaration of Independence. Accordingly, the Declaration of Independence is, and always was, a law of the USA. Since all US citizens must know and obey all laws of the USA, no citizen can violate the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, or any other law created by Congress. Violators can thus be punished.
Crimes have been committed against the new political experiment. The first crime against the new experiment was the Dred Scott decision of the US Supreme Court. This decision led to the Civil War. A second crime occurred in 1925. In his trial, John T. Scopes was charged with teaching Darwin's theory of evolution. The Tennessee law, which recognizes the divine mandates of the Declaration of Independence, declared unlawful the teaching of any doctrine denying the divine creation of man. The judge ruled out any test of the law's constitutionality. But, the state Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the 1925 law. However, the Tennessee law was repealed in 1967. Note. This law was repealed after the American Theists organization was founded by Madalyn Murray O!Hair in 1963.
Other crimes began to develop in 1963. However, these crimes are not detected as crimes because violations of our founding documents are not enforced as other congressional laws are enforced by organized law enforcement agencies. These crimes are committed by atheists who want to increase the political power of atheism. This crime against the new experiment emerged after the US Supreme Court ruled in favor of the effort of Madalyn Murray O’ Hair to remove prayers from American schools in 1963. The O’ Hair decision is similar to the Dred Scott decision, which legalized slavery. In the Dred Scott decision the Declaration of Independence was used by the Supreme Court but was misinterpreted by the Court. In the O’ Hair decision, the Declaration of Independence was not even used. In the O’ Hair decision, the Supreme Court justices made atheism legal. The Court had no authority to make atheism legal.. Only ‘the governed’ has such a authority. But this Court decision gave the Court legislating authority, which the Court does not have.
The Declaration and the Constitution do not authorize atheism. The USA has no law of any kind that authorizes the practice of atheism. Having doubts about God is thinking not a practice of atheism. All atheistic practices are illegal and must be punished. In my experiences with atheists, atheists generally show no interest in developing knowledge of God. If they did express interests in God they would find God and would not be atheists. But, a nation under God cannot beg citizens to be believers. Every family in a civil society has personal and social responsibilities. They are also responsible for developing knowledge needed by a godly nation. With respect to prayers, my research on God/man communications shows that God and man do not talk together on a telephone but do exchange information. Thus, praying might be one way that man furnishes human information to a wise God.
Because of the Supreme Court ruling in favor of atheism, O!Hair built the American Atheists to protect the civil rights of nonbelievers. However, the rights of an atheist are arbitrary and are not in accordance with the Declaration. It thus seems that the American Civil Liberty Union (ACLU) might be a criminal organization whose purpose is to destroy the new political experiment and our beautiful Lockean civil society.
In a nation under God, it is not wrong to display on public land some samples of man’s progress in increasing his knowledge. Such samples can teach the youth of a nation about the continual needs for theological and scientific progress. If a nation displays military statues, political leaders, technical advances, etc. in a public park, it is also right to display theological advances such as the Ten Commandments.
A more recent violation of the Declaration might have occurred when a group of atheists conspired to stop the propagation of my book. This book is propagated in order to teach new knowledge about God, theology, and science. Some of them began to stop the propagation of my book only one month after it was published in June 2006. Their effort was also aimed at assassinating my character.
Atheism seemed to have caused the US drug culture in the 1960s and the appearance of crack cocaine in 1985. Atheism also seemed to influence our nation’s young scientists, our nation’s new intellectuals, and our nation’s new Hollywood celebrities. Atheism also seems to explain the recent reduction of US morals. These reduced morals can be seen in movies and TV prime time sitcoms, on the Internet (pornography and child molestation), the appearance of new prostitution brothels, casinos, etc. But atheism wilt fade away completely soon because three atheistic theories (evolution theory, big bang theory, and string theory) are failing. The truth about atheism is very clear, The truth about atheism is that the practice of atheism was never legal in the USA. Thus, the illegal practices must be eliminated immediately Otherwise, the new political experiment will never develop and the true freedom of US citizens will never be achieved.V. Closing Statements
In 1776, the colonists became active players in a new political experiment under God. The colonists practiced the belief in God. This practice has never been changed and can be changed only by ‘the governed.’ Further, the governed’ did no authorize atheism in the Declaration of Independence. So, the practice of atheism in the USA is a violation of law. A federal agency must thus be created to detect and punish the practice of atheism. To make the new political experiment a success, the Declaration must be returned to its natural place, where our founders had put it. If the Declaration is returned to its natural place, the USA will become beautiful and will develop many friends throughout the world. But, if the Declaration is not returned to its natural place, the future of the USA will become ugly and highly unpredictable. Without the Declaration and without success with the new political experiment, I predict higher crime rates, continued reduction of US and world morals, and a major failure of all sciences. I believe that all wars in recent times were caused by the US Supreme Court misinterpretations of the 1776 event and the divine purpose of the Declaration of Independence.Appendix: The Declaration of Independence
When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. —— That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, —— That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. —— Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly f irmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. —— And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.